When it comes to such a matter as dependence on pills, anti-anxiety drugs are commonly referred to this, and they also called tranquilizers. As the name suggests, these drugs act on anxiety. Anxiety is a frequent companion of various mental and not only mental disorders and is very difficult for patients. Therefore, doctors often prescribe these medicines to alleviate the condition in various other diseases. For example, anxiety is a frequent companion for depressive disorders, for arrhythmias and other cardiovascular diseases.
And panic attacks are anxiety disorder in itself. Tranquilizers of the benzodiazepine series (such as Phenazepam, for example) were created long ago. They are used in the treatment of severe mental disorders. They have a pronounced anticonvulsant and relaxing effect; used as a sleeping pill.
At the same time, despite their purpose, they also act on the psyche. For example, diphenhydramine is an antihistamine drug used to treat allergies, Lyrica (Pregabalin) is pain medicine, Cyclodol corrects movement disorders, and Tropicamide is used in the practice of ophthalmologists (eye doctors). And all these drugs are interesting for seekers of new sensations.
Pharmaceutical drugs, types of drugs and the consequences of their use
All drugs that are used for medical purposes can also be used for other purposes. The most common pharmaceutical drugs are tranquilizers. A fairly common occurrence is an ordinary person who took anti-anxiety medications, such as Phenazepam or Xanax, to cope with an anxiety disorder, but could not stop and became dependent on tranquilizers. Such a relationship is the result of an error in the treatment process and not a search for a “high” feeling. But at the same time, all the signs of dependence are available.
And the approach to treatment is close to which is used to treat ordinary drug addicts. Drug addicts can use tranquilizers as the primary substance to achieve the effect of euphoria and to enhance the impact of some other drug, such as heroin.
Another reason for drug addicts to use tranquilizers is that these pills help to relieve withdrawal symptoms (a condition that arises when the drug is canceled). The most frequently used dependents from this group are:
Drug addicts use a separate group of substances similar in chemical structure for different purposes only as a means of achieving “high.” They, as a rule, are not mixed with other drugs but are taken in doses that greatly exceed therapeutic ones. These include Lyrics (Pregabalin) and Gamma-hydroxy-butyric acid (GHB, butyrate, sodium hydroxybutyrate), Ketamine (Klopiksol), Cyclodol (Akineton).
Lyrics (Pregabalin) is used to treat pain. But in large doses, this medicine is very interesting for drug addicts – it causes euphoria close to the effect of opioids. Butyrate and Ketamine are means for anesthesia. It is quite difficult to buy them at the pharmacy, so they are not so common among drug addicts as other groups. When used, they cause prolonged violent hallucinations. They are very dangerous because the person taking them completely loses control over reality.
Tropicamide is a drug used by ophthalmologists. These are eye drops that cause pupil dilation. The ophthalmologist through the dilated pupil may thoroughly examine the fundus. Addicts use this drug in large doses for other purposes. Most often, intravenously to get “high.”
Cyclodol is a drug that prevents the development of motor disorders in people taking neuroleptics. It is used as a corrector in carefully selected doses. Addicts can be used to experience hallucinations. Some drugs contain stimulants, such as ephedrine. Addicts to get artisanal drugs in kitchen laboratories can use these drugs.
Dependence on drugs
Despite the variety of drugs that can cause addiction, experts identify only two main types of such reliance. Each of them is formed when taking drugs of specific groups:
Analgesics, antidepressants, antipsychotics, which eliminate the symptoms, but not the cause of the disease. This approach leads to the periodic return of acute manifestations, during which the patient independently begins to take drugs used earlier, which leads to their uncontrolled use.
Tranquilizers, anesthetic drugs, psychotropic drugs that affect the essential functions of the body. After their cancellation, significant disturbances occur, up to brain lesions.
Taking into account the category of the influencing substance and the degree of pathological addiction, there are also 3 phases of dependence development – psychological, physical, and withdrawal syndrome. Different symptoms characterize each of them.
Dependence on these drugs occurs approximately in the same scenario. After applying any of these drugs, some of them cause euphoria, a state of lightness, and other cause hallucination. With prolonged use occurs withdrawal syndrome, which is accompanied by adverse reactions of the body to the termination of the receipt of the active substance, including:
• hypersensitivity to sound and light;
• increased sweating;
To get rid of unpleasant symptoms a person returns to taking the drug. Over time, large doses are required to achieve the effect. Quite often in the practice of a narcologist, there is a “supplement” in the form of alcoholic beverages. The result is the destruction of the central nervous system, problems with the work of the internal organs, most often with the liver, a decrease in intellectual abilities, distortion of emotional perception and response, and ultimately the degradation of the individual.
Signs and symptoms of drug dependence:
• dramatic weight loss;
• constant drowsiness;
• tremor, convulsions;
• slow heart rate;
• shortness of breath even after simple actions;
• a person often falls into a state of stupor;
• frequent headaches;
• suicidal thoughts.
But the main symptom of dependence on pills is the inability of a person to refuse to use the drug. He finds more and more new reasons to continue “taking medicine.” A particular risk group, in this case, is alcoholics, who are sometimes prescribed Phenazepam and similar medications as addiction therapy. Such people have already formed the mechanism of mental craving, and they easily “switch” from one simulator to another. Over time, as with other drugs, tolerance to the drug develops. The addict begins to take larger doses, increasing the risk of poisoning.
Symptoms of poisoning
Any overdose has three degrees. All of them are characterized by copious saliva, sputum formation in the lungs, an abnormal heart rhythm, and respiration. In general, different symptoms may occur, depending on how the person has taken the drug.
For example, there may be:
• hearing problems;
• severe coughing in an attempt to withdraw sputum;
• violation of the centering of the pupils;
• the impossibility of concentrating sight on one point;
• man cannot fully open his eyes;
• anxiety or, conversely, excessive inhibition.
The intoxication of moderate severity:
• small or, conversely, wide pupils that do not respond to a light source; a problem with swallowing, drooling;
• severe trembling of limbs;
• lack of contact with others.
• dilated pupils;
• impaired respiratory function;
• a substantial decrease in blood pressure;
• increased or slowing heart rate;
Even with the moderate use of any pharmaceutical drugs prescribed by a doctor, medications can cause the following reactions from the body:
• sleep disorders;
• the decrease in concentration;
• memory impairment;
• coordination disorders;
• slower reactions (both motor and mental);
• uncontrolled movements;
• epileptic seizures;
• muscle spasms;
• violations in the work of the blood;
• heartburn, nausea (vomiting);
• disorders of the liver;
• itching, skin rash;
• violation of the urinary-genital system;
• venous thrombosis;
Treatment of addiction to pills
Multi-stage therapy is required to help those who have become addicted to networks. Its complexity and duration depend on some factors: what exactly the patient consumed, how long, for what purpose, whether he used something else, whether there are joint diseases, what age, weight, or if the intellect is preserved.
The general treatment plan is as follows:
• drug treatment;
• rehabilitation work with psychotherapists and psychologists; physiotherapy.
Drug support and physiotherapy help normalize the body’s physical and mental functions. Psychotherapy programs are aimed at resolving the internal conflict that caused addiction, developing a definite pattern about a healthy lifestyle. At the rehabilitation stage, a healthy outlook is restored, a person learns to determine when there is a risk of failure, and to resist the temptation to return to the use of psychoactive substances.
Treatment of the syndrome depends on the drug that caused it. Before you get rid of drug addiction, a diagnosis is made, and then comprehensive treatment is carried out, including the following steps:
• Gradual or simultaneous replacement of the drug with a non-addictive analog, simultaneously with detoxification of the body;
• rehabilitation, treatment in groups, psycho- and occupational therapy;
• elimination of the cause of the disease;
• treatment with antagonists or sensitizers;
Drug addiction is difficult to treat. To achieve a positive effect, it is necessary to cooperate with the efforts of the doctor, the patient, and his immediate environment. Often this requires a stay in the clinic, where an integrated approach to solving the problem is taken. The sooner treatment is started, the higher the likelihood of a successful outcome.