Bronchial asthma is a disease of the respiratory organs, which has been known since ancient times. Asthma and its symptoms are described in the medical writings of classical authors, beginning with Hippocrates. Asthma easily affects people of different ages, but lately, the disease is more common in children. More than three hundred million people worldwide are diagnosed with bronchial asthma. They have to treat their illness while trying to control their disease.
Definition of disease
Asthma is a chronic disease that can seriously disrupt the life and activity of the body. It happens that the disease leads to disability, and due to very heavy complications, can lead to premature death. The condition usually proceeds as single attacks, which hit the person sporadically, but sometimes a very severe course occurs, which leads to death. Modern medicine classifies asthma as a persistent inflammation in the airways of a chronic nature that happens with the participation of inflammatory cells.
You manage to keep the situation within the proper framework:
• if you lead a productive, physically active life, you manage to work, study, engage in physical labor;
• symptoms of the disease do not appear at night, during the day you do not have problems with breathing;
• asthma attacks are sporadic, do not have to call an ambulance;
• medications are used minimally to stop asthma symptoms;
• pulmonary function is assessed as usual (lung function is determined using daily peak flowmetry).
The extent of the problem
Medical science is developing, new medicines are emerging, but the level of morbidity and mortality from bronchial asthma is not becoming less. This picture is considered characteristic of most developed countries of the world. To a large extent, this contributes to the scale of pollution of nature, reduced immunity, especially in children, which for our country can be considered a national problem. However, the degree of development of modern medicine makes it possible to diagnose and cure bronchial asthma. Physiotherapy and medication are in the arsenal of specialists.
Where does asthma come from
The inflammatory nature of asthma is associated with the action of non-specific and specific factors that are manifested in inflammation of the bronchial mucosa. This can lead to the fact that the lumen of the bronchi narrows, there is a bronchial obstruction. A unique role is assigned to increased sensitivity, bronchial hyperreactivity, due to which, under the influence of external factors, bronchospasm occurs, the mucosa swells, mucus caps are formed, and the bronchial wall subsequently changes. The inflammatory process provokes an attack of the disease, which is easy to diagnose.
Characteristics of a bronchial attack
The attacks are classified as:
• moderately severe;
Sometimes the bronchial patency is disturbed, and dry rales appear during an attack.
The characteristic of this attack:
• difficulty breathing;
• chest pain, especially at night or early in the morning.
How to control the disease
Experts have called four simple steps that allow you to maintain control over asthma. First, you need to take asthma medications prescribed by the doctor. Most asthma patients need two types of drugs:
• those who act swiftly must be considered in case of an asthma attack;
• those that control the process (the medicine must be taken daily to prevent an attack).
Secondly, you need to know the factors that provoke an asthma attack (they are called triggers) and ways to avoid seizures. An asthmatic patient can respond to a variety of triggers. Try to avoid the factors that provoke an attack:
You need to visit your doctor two or three times a year to check, even if you feel good and have no breathing problems. If there was an attack, stop it quickly, and call an ambulance if necessary.
Proper use of inhalers will relieve asphyxiation.
Asphyxiation in patients with asthma does not occur only because of bronchospasm. As a result, breathing becomes more difficult. Viscous, sticky, bronchial sputum may be excreted. This means that other mechanisms of manifestations of the disease have come into effect, and the person still uses the inhaler worsening his condition. It would be better to use another drug, other ways of dealing with the disease.
The most common mistake is the incorrect position of the inhaler when the patient inhales the medicine. The inhaler looks like the letter G; in case of use, keep it inevitably a short piece downwards. Otherwise, you will inhale not the drug, but freon gas. Learn to exhale with inhaling correctly. Inhale only deeply for ten seconds, and inhale approximately at the fifth second. Then hold your breath for a while and exhale – otherwise all the medicine will settle in your mouth.
Essential facts about asthma that every adult should know
Asthma is the most ancient disease.
The word “asthma” has Greek roots, literally translated as “difficult to breathe.” And the history of asthma dates back centuries and millennia. But only in our century, people learned how to control and treat asthma. Although it is not yet possible to cure asthma until the end, it is a severe chronic disease. And the primary goal of the attending physician and patient is to achieve control throughout asthma. Sometimes it takes months and even years of treatment to achieve remission (a condition in which the disease has no clinical signs and symptoms, and there is no need for drug therapy).
Asthma debut can occur at any age. Most often, it happens at the age of 10 to 40 years. Indeed, one-year-old baby and an older adult can become asthmatic. The age period for this disease is not limited. Asthma is usually formed on the background of prolonged contact with allergens, and a genetically determined predisposition of the response to allergens and factors provoking the exacerbation of asthma. There is evidence that stresses can form the initial symptoms of asthma.
The main trigger for asthma is allergic inflammation of the bronchi.
It is contacted with causally significant allergens, especially in childhood, that serves as an impetus that triggers asthma in the body. These are household allergens (house dust mites), and epidermal ones (people call such this an allergy on animals), and fungi (the presence of mold is fixed in almost any home). Allergy to cockroaches is prevalent, and if these insects do not live in all apartments, they live in nearly all non-residential premises – shops, markets, schools, kindergartens. The consumption of milk and dairy products can cause asthma in Early childhood.
Also, bronchospasm can form on the background of cross food intolerance. For example, a child is allergic to the pollen of a certain kind. Some products have the same genetic structure as this pollen, and the intake of these products can form bronchospasm. As a rule, an allergy is hereditary, and an indirect relative (second cousin, grandmother’s sister, etc.) can also give it to us. Allergies have many adverse effects on the body, but the most terrible of them is asthma. There is also non-allergic, endogenous asthma, which is formed as a result of contact with professional chemical reagents.
The alarming symptoms.
The most common symptoms for asthma are asphyxiation, chest tightness, and cough. The classic sign is night and morning cough. Often cough is accompanied by wheezing. Nasal symptoms are prolonged chronic rhinitis and difficulty in nasal breathing, chronic nasal congestion. Children have sneezing and itchy nose. During physical exertion, children can get tired faster, and they come to their senses longer after running.
What to do?
If a mother notices a similar condition in a child, you should, first of all, go to the pediatrician and the therapist. After an anamnesis has been collected, it is recommended to contact an allergist-immunologist. As additional research, allergy tests, breath test (for children over seven years old) are conducted.
There are several methods of treating asthma. The primary drug is essential therapy and emergency care. Necessary drugs are used for an extended period until the formation of a state of persistent remission. In the future, dose reductions and cancellation of therapy are possible, given the presence of disease controllability. Plus, the constant supervision of a pediatrician or therapist is needed. Emergency care is provided with an inhalation drug, the purpose of which is to stop an attack of asphyxiation and coughing. Such drugs relax the muscles located in the bronchi of the narrowed airways, which allows a person to breathe freely again. A disease such as asthma implies the provision of free essential therapy and emergency care for children. That is, a pediatrician should issue recipes for free medication at the place of residence.
One of the most important measures to keep asthma under control is keeping the house clean, and adherence to hypoallergenic life. It is also undesirable to have animals at home and plant greenhouses from flowering plants. The perfect sport activity is swimming. If people smoke more than three years more than seven cigarettes per day, irreversible effects form in the bronchopulmonary tree, which can cause chronic obstructive pulmonary this.